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The Supernova Next Door
The violent and bright explosions of supernova explosions herald the explosive, violent deaths of stars, and these stellar blazes are so bright that they may even outshine their entire host galaxies—at least for a while. On January 21, 2014, an unusually close stellar explosion became a glorious goal pursued by astronomers around the world, as well as several NASA spacecraft.explosion, dub SN 2014J Dazzling the M82 galaxy “only” 12 million light-years from our planet. SN 2014J The closest optical supernova to light up the sky in two decades — astronomers say it may be the closest Type Ia supernova to explode during today’s mission — presents a rare opportunity to study such a cosmic event.
SN 2014J It is the brightest supernova discovered on our planet since the massive stellar explosion that erupted in 1987 – just 168,000 light-years from Earth. In fact, the January 2014 supernova was so bright that it could be spotted with a small telescope looking at the dark, cloud-shrouded sky over north London. On January 21, 2014, Dr. Steve Fossey, an astronomer at University College London, took 21 students to a routine course on the 35cm telescope at the University of London City Observatory.When he showed his students the galaxy M82 (also known as Cigar Galaxy Because of its shape, they found something strange — a bright star sitting on the very edge of the Milky Way’s disk. M82 hangs directly above the bowl Ursa Major (Big Dipper) Constellations have long been a favorite deep-space target for astronomers.
The bright star, seen in images taken by Dr. Fossey and his students during the 10-minute observation, appears to be a newcomer. Dr. Fossey doesn’t recall seeing it before, and it doesn’t appear in images he and his students have scoured the Internet for. “This seems a bit odd,” Dr. Fossey said in a January 23, 2014 Scientific American.
According to the students who saw SN 2014Jthe exciting discovery was a huge surprise.
“One minute we were eating pizza, and five minutes later we helped discover a supernova. I couldn’t believe it. It reminded me why I got interested in astronomy in the first place,” said student Tom Wright. Statement to the press, January 2014.
Another student, Ben Cooke, also commented in a January 2014 press statement: “The odds of discovering anything new in the sky are astronomical, but this is especially astonishing because This is one of the first images we have taken with this telescope.”
something new in the sky
All stars, large and small, “live” their entire hydrogen burning process, main sequence “Living” by maintaining a very critical and delicate balance between two constantly opposing forces –gravity and radiation pressure. This radiation pressure star power moves everything outward And away from the star, it keeps this huge, seething, blazing sphere of gas bouncing under the squeeze of the star gravity, relentlessly trying to pull everything inward. This radiation pressure on a star main sequence result of the process nuclear fusion, first hydrogen, the lightest and most abundant atomic element in the universe, burns into helium – the second lightest atomic element. this process, stellar nucleosynthesis, Heavier atomic elements are continually fused from lighter elements.In fact, all atomic elements heavier than helium (called Metal by astronomers), is in the scorching nuclear fusion The hearts of trillions of stellar inhabitants in our vast cosmic wonderland—or in the spectacular supernova explosion that heralds the end of that long road to stars.
When a lone star exhausts its necessary supply of hydrogen fuel, most supernovae ignite and blow themselves to pieces, thus meeting its fiery final doom. Typically, a supernova precursor is a massive star with an extremely heavy core of about 1.4 solar masses ( Chandrasekhar Limit). Smaller, less resourceful members of stellar populations, such as our own sun, don’t usually die in a supernova fire with the incredible brilliance and ferocity of their more massive stellar relatives. Little stars, like our own, die in relative peace and incredible beauty.Currently our sun is a common garden variety and rather petite main sequence Star. With eight major planets, numerous lovely moons, and a host of other smaller objects, orbiting our Sun, which is blissfully located on the far outskirts of a magnificent, gigantic, barred spiral galaxy, our Milky Way — it’s a beautiful beautiful, star-studded windmills spinning in space. Our sun, like all stars, won’t last forever. Like all stars, it is destined to exhaust its necessary amount of hydrogen fuel at some point.Our sun’s relatively small-mass stars can ‘live’ their lives main sequence Lived for about 10 billion years, happily and contently fusing their core supply of hydrogen into something heavier.
However, our sun isn’t exactly a spring chicken. In fact, it was a middle-aged star. It’s not old, but it’s not young either. However, it’s going through a happy and productive middle age, and is still alive and well enough to happily fuse hydrogen in its fiery heart for another 5 billion years or so — alas, it’s already been alive for about 4.56 billion years!
When small stars like ours finally manage to fuse most of their nutritious hydrogen fuel, they swell into glowering, swollen red giant star Star. At this point, the old Sun-like star has a worn-out helium core surrounded by a shell that still has some lingering hydrogen in it that is fusing into helium. The shell swells outward, and the star’s dying heart gradually grows larger as the doomed star grows older. Next, the helium core itself begins to shrink under its own weight—and at the same time, it gets hotter and hotter until, eventually, its center becomes so hot that the helium begins to fuse into heavier central atomic elements— -carbon.The tiny sun-like star ends up with a tiny, hot heart that produces more power than it did when it was a vibrant young man long, long ago main sequence Star. The outer atmosphere of the old star has been swollen and red. Sadly, in our own solar system, when our sun eventually becomes a bloated, aging, red giant star, which will frantically cannibalize some of its own planetary descendants — first Mercury, then Venus, and then (maybe) our Earth.The temperature of this terrible, hungry fiery surface red giant star Will be much colder than when our Sun was a vibrant, young, life-sustaining star!
The deaths of small stars like our Sun are relatively mild, characterized by their outer gaseous layers “softly” ejecting shiny, multicolored gas into the spaces between the stars. These celestial bodies are so breathtakingly beautiful that astronomers often refer to them as “the butterflies of the universe.”
This is how our sun will die – beautifully, and relatively peacefully. But that’s because our sun is a lone star. It has no companion stars around to disturb its reclusive bliss.The dead body of the sun will be a dense, small stellar remnant called white dwarfits shroud will be a shimmering, glittering “butterfly” with multi-colored wings.
However, when a Sun-like star has another star as a companion, something very different happens — a rude interruption of its peaceful solitude. This could lead to some pretty explosive things happening. Small stars usually don’t carry enough mass to go supernova.However, if there are two stellar relics, this explosion can occur white dwarf Collision and fusion, or if a lonely white dwarf A close bond with a sister star — and victim — as well.the unfortunate companion may be main sequence star or swollen red giant. In either case, white dwarf, with a vampiric hunger, sucked the substance from the companion star—as much as it could, until at last, it could drink no more.This white dwarf “go critical” like the big guys and blow themselves up in a supernova event called a Type Ia.
supernova next door
astronomers think SN 2014J yes member Type Ia class, which could help explain how these supernovae develop. Type Ia Supernovae are “standard candles” — that is, they are used by astronomers as cosmic measuring sticks to help them determine how far the universe is expanding.
observation SN 2014J Spectrum reveals its status Type Ia. This type of supernova brightens rapidly.Although many such supernovae are discovered each year, they are often farther away than Earth cigar galaxy.
Astronomers around the world will now take a closer look SN 2014J Brighten.They used the consistency of brightness Type Ia Very precise distance measurements of supernovae have been made in the past.In fact, these cosmic “standard candles” are found dark energy in the 1990s. dark energy is a mysterious force, a property of space itself, that is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate.
This cigar The close proximity of the galaxy means that there are many extant images of it, dating back to SN 2014J exploded, including some from Hubble Space Telescope. Astronomers will scrutinize the images, looking for what existed in the region before the star exploded.This cigar The galaxies are shrouded in dust — the light from supernovae shining on dust can also teach astronomers about the Milky Way.A team of astronomers is currently searching there for radioactive elements, such as nickel, which some theories predict will be present in the Type Ia Supernova.
one of the first telescopes to stare SN 2014J is NASA’s orbit fast The observatory took images of the supernova and its host galaxy, the UV/optical telescopes.
Dr Neil Gehrels told the media on January 27, 2014: “Finding and publicizing new supernova discoveries is often the weak link in obtaining fast observations, but once we know about it, we can observe a new object within hours. “This fast Principal Investigator, NASA Observatory Goddard Space Flight Center.
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