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All About Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease that occurs due to a decrease in bone density. This reduction occurs slowly and gradually over many years without signs or symptoms. That’s why osteoporosis is often said to be a silent disease. When the condition is exacerbated, symptoms such as fractures, hunchback, height loss, back pain, etc. will appear.
About 80% of people with osteoporosis are women. This has to do with the fact that women’s menopause causes them to lose estrogen, a hormone that has the function of storing calcium into the bones. But men can also have osteoporosis. It affects one in five men over the age of 50.
Causes and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis
What is the real cause of osteoporosis? Several factors play a role in causing this disease. they are:
1. postmenopausal osteoporosisThis happens because of a decrease in estrogen, the main gonadal hormone in women that has the function of storing calcium to the bones.
2. senile osteoporosis, It may be due to insufficient calcium intake in life. It is related to age and an imbalance in bone destruction and formation.
3. secondary osteoporosis, caused by other medical conditions or medications. Osteoporosis may be caused by chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, long-term use of corticosteroids, barbiturates, etc. Alcohol and smoking may worsen osteoporosis.
4. juvenile idiopathic osteoporosis, a form of osteoporosis of unknown cause. It attacks children and adolescents with normal hormonal levels and functions, normal vitamins and no definitive cause of bone fragility.
These are risk factors:
1. Miss. It is associated with a decrease in estrogen (from the age of 35) and menopause.
2. age. The older you are, the greater your chance of developing osteoporosis.
3. Race. Caucasians and Asians are at highest risk. This is often due to low calcium intake in Asian women. Africans and Hispanics are at lower risk.
4. family history of osteoporosis. If one of your relatives has osteoporosis, you must be careful. Osteoporosis attacks people with specific bone characteristics, such as the same bone structure in a family.
5. bad lifestyle,include:
- Excessive consumption of red meat and soft drinksThey both contain phosphorus, which stimulates the secretion of parathyroid hormone, which causes the release of calcium from the bones into the blood.
- caffeine and alcohol. They can cause weak and damaged bones. A caffeine or alcohol ingested urine contains more calcium from bone destruction. Additionally, caffeine and alcohol are toxic and inhibit bone mass formation.
- lazy to exercise. Lazy exercise or people who exercise can lead to inhibition of the osteoblast process. Exercise and exercise are a great stimulus for bone formation. Being lazy to move also reduces bone density.
- smokes. Nicotine can stimulate bone resorption. It also reduces estrogen levels and activity.
- low blood calcium levels. It causes the body to secrete hormones that cause the blood to absorb calcium from other parts of the body, including the bones.
6. Drug Consumption. Corticosteroids used in asthma and allergy patients may inhibit bone formation. Heparin and anticonvulsant drugs may also play a role. Consult your doctor before using this medicine.
7. Thin and small. This body position tends to make the body lighter. If bones are stressed by heavy weight, they struggle to form cells. Therefore, thin people are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis.
How Osteoporosis is Diagnosed
If someone, such as a 70-year-old woman, develops symptoms of osteoporosis such as fractures, the diagnosis of osteoporosis will be confirmed based on the signs and symptoms she experiences. The doctor will also ask if she has risk factors for osteoporosis. He or she will then do some physical exams and x-rays. Other tests may be needed for another possibility of a fracture.
Early Screening for Osteoporosis
As I mentioned above, osteoporosis is a silent disease, so if you want to know if you have it, get screened. The goal of this test is to find out how dense your bones are and to see what your risk of developing this disease is.
Here are some screening tests for early diagnosis of osteoporosis:
1. Digital XA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) Density meter. It is the gold standard for diagnosing osteoporosis. This test is painless and can be done in 5 to 15 minutes. It is a useful diagnostic and screening test. It can be used to confirm a suspicious diagnosis. It is useful for women at high risk for osteoporosis and for treatment patients requiring accurate assessment.
2. American government (Ultrasonography) density meter. This is a commonly used device for screening for osteoporosis. The result of this test is called a T-score:
- > -1: good bone density
- -2.5 to -1: Osteopenia (decreased bone density)
It’s cheaper, more practical and painless.
The goals of osteoporosis treatment and drug therapy are to increase bone density, reduce additional bone fractures, and control pain. Determining optimal therapy includes multidisciplinary aspects. Teams from surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology will be involved. A clinical nutritionist should also be consulted.
Appropriate treatment will be given according to the needs of the patient. If a fracture occurs, your doctor will check for the need for surgery or splinting. Afterwards, the patient should undergo physical therapy to restore bone capacity.
Medical treatment is needed to prevent further fractures. This could be offered to patients who have not experienced a fracture but have osteoporosis, for example through screening. The following are drugs:
1. Bisphosphonates. This medication is used to prevent bone damage, restore bone mass, and increase bone density, especially in the back and hips. This group of drugs includes risendronate, alendronate, pamidronate, clodronate, zoledronate (zoledronic acid), and ibandronic acid.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). It is a hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women. It can effectively reduce bone turnover and slow down bone resorption. An example of a SERM is raloxifene.
3. Vitamin D Metabolites Namely calcitriol and alpha calciferol. They have the ability to help the body absorb calcium.
4. Calcitonin. This drug is recommended for people with spinal fractures accompanied by pain. This medication is either injected or given as a nasal spray.
5. Strontium ranelate. This drug improves bone formation by activating osteoblasts and forming collagen, and reduces bone resorption by reducing osteoclast activity.
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