A 14-Month-Old Boy Is Brought For A Well-Child Examination Franz Joseph Haydn – From Peasant to Fame and Wealth

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Franz Joseph Haydn – From Peasant to Fame and Wealth

The world of Austria, where Haydn was born in 1732, began a new life free from foreign Turk oppression, filled with religious fervour, expanding its borders and living under the brilliant Habsburg dynasty. The reigning Emperor Charles VI was an excellent violinist, harpsichordist and opera composer. The class system was particularly acute at this time, and poor peasants had little chance of making a fortune. However, Franz Joseph Haydn, who was born into a peasant family, achieved extraordinary recognition and wealth, not only for his social status, but also for the composers and musicians of his time. Haydn’s father Mathias was a wheelwright and his mother Anna Maria Kohler was a chef at Harrach Castle. Haydn was the second of twelve children born to the wheelwright and his wife. Haydn’s two brothers, John Michael and John Evangelist, also became musicians.

As a child, Haydn was taught to love music. His father played the harp and was gifted with a beautiful tenor voice, and his mother also loved to sing. Haydn went to the school principal in Heimburg, where he studied reading and writing, catechism, singing, wind and string instruments for two years. At the age of eight he was called up to become a pupil at St. Stephen’s Cathedral Choir School, where he continued his musical studies but received no instruction in music theory. At the age of sixteen, his voice became hoarse, and Haydn cut off a classmate’s braid as a prank, which became an excuse for the conductor to expel him from the choir. Therefore, without food, money, clothes or a home, Haydn was forced into this world as a freelance musician.

As a freelance musician, Haydn performed for dance, arranged for various instruments, taught music to a small extent, acted as accompanist, composed and participated in serenades. “Old Austria, like Italy, was very fond of open-air music in the evenings, and many musicians were needed to meet this constant demand. Haydn took full advantage of this fad. He made a little money this way, and took it from the rich Good Viennese fold music for the money.”

Through the money he earned as a freelance performer, and the generosity of Anton Buchholz who lent him one hundred and fifty florins unconditionally, Haydn was able to rent a room and set about filling the gaps in his theoretical knowledge. He studied Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux, Der vollkommene Kapellmeister by Johann Mattheson, Unterricht im Generalbass by David Kellner and the works of Carl Phillip Emanuel Bach.

In 1758 Haydn became chamber composer to Count Karl Joseph Franz von Morzin of Bohemia. This is a social and economic advance and he is now paid regularly, 200 florins a year, in addition to free board and lodging. Haydn’s good fortune did not end when, at the court of Prince Gregory Joseph Werner of Esterházy in Einstadt, he received an invitation to become second-in-command and later chief conductor. Haydn gladly accepted the new position.

The Esterhazy family was at the head of the powerful Hungarian nobility. Not only did Haydn’s duties include composing almost all the music played at court, he was also in charge of the members of the orchestra, making sure they wore clean white stockings and neat uniforms and making sure they didn’t play mischief. The orchestra originally consisted of five violins, a cello, a double bass, a flute, two oboes, two bassoons and two horns. Under the services of the court of Esterházy, Haydn was freed to experiment with new musical ideas of form and harmony. He developed a style of motive development, timbre painting, independence of instrument lines, and use of “bold keys” such as B major, F sharp major, and C sharp major.

Haydn was a prolific composer, composing 83 string quartets, 104 symphonies; 52 piano sonatas; many piano concertos (15), violin (13), French horn (2), trumpet (1) , flute (1) and cello (2); 35 piano trios; more than 175 suites; 19 operas; 14 masses; part songs and voices of cannons; and 5 oratorios. Haydn’s oratorios have been the subject of discussion, analysis, and speculation by many scholars, especially The Seasons and Genesis.

Haydn’s compositions are among the most beautiful of the golden age of music.

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