A 50-Year-Old Woman Is Experiencing Signs And Symptoms Of Menopause Breast Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

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Breast Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that starts in breast tissue. During her lifetime, one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. Breast cancer is cancer of the breast tissue that can occur in both men and women. Breast cancer may be one of the oldest cancer tumors known to man. Worldwide, breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death (after lung, stomach, liver and colon cancers). Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer other than lung cancer. Today, breast cancer, like other forms of cancer, is thought to be the result of DNA damage. How this mechanism might occur arises from several known or hypothesized factors (such as exposure to ionizing radiation or viral mutagenesis). Several factors lead to increased mutation rates (exposure to estrogen) and decreased repair (BRCA1, BRCA2, and p53) genes. Alcohol generally increases the risk of breast cancer.

Breast cancer can also occur in men, although this is rare. Experts predict that 178,000 women and 2,000 men in the United States will develop breast cancer. There are several different types of breast cancer. The first is ductal carcinoma, which arises from the cells that line the ducts that carry milk to the nipple, and accounts for more than 75 percent of breast cancers. This is followed by lobular carcinoma, which arises from the milk-secreting glands of the breast but otherwise behaves very similarly to ductal carcinoma. Other types of breast cancer may start in the skin, fat, connective tissue, and other cells present in the breast. Some women have so-called HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2, short for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, is a gene that helps control cell growth, division and repair. When cells have too many copies of this gene, cell growth accelerates.

Causes of Breast Cancer

Being female alone is the main risk for breast cancer. While men can also get the disease, women are about 100 times more affected than men. As a woman ages, her chances of developing breast cancer increase. Nearly 8 in 10 breast cancers occur in women age 50 or older. About 5% to 10% of breast cancers are associated with changes (mutations) in certain genes. The most common genetic changes are those in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Women who have close relatives with the disease are at higher risk of breast cancer. Relatives can be from the maternal or paternal side of the family. A woman who has cancer in one breast is more likely to develop a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. This is not the same as a cancer that came back for the first time, and many experts now believe that the main reason for this is because their tumors are growing faster. Asian, Hispanic, and American Indian women have a lower risk of breast cancer. Certain types of abnormal biopsy results may be associated with a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.Women who received radiation therapy to the chest (as treatment for another cancer) early in life have a greatly increased risk of breast cancer

Some pregnant women take the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) because it is thought to reduce their chances of miscarriage. Recent studies have shown that these women (and their daughters who were exposed to DES in utero) have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. Alcohol consumption was apparently associated with a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. Women who drank 1 glass of alcohol per day had a very small increased risk. Women who drank 2 to 5 drinks a day had about 1.5 times the risk of developing the disease than women who did not drink. The American Cancer Society recommends limiting alcohol consumption. Being overweight is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, especially for women after life changes and when weight gain occurs in adulthood. Also, the risk appears to be higher if the excess fat is located around the waist. Breastfeeding and pregnancy: Some studies suggest that breastfeeding slightly reduces the risk of breast cancer, especially if breastfeeding continues for 1.5 to 2 years. This may be because breastfeeding reduces the total number of periods a woman has, as does pregnancy. Women who started menstruating earlier (before age 12) or experienced life changes after age 55 (menopause) had a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

1. Lump.

2. Rash.

3. Breast pain.

4. Cyst.

5. Nipple discharge.

6. Inverted nipples.

breast cancer treatment

1. Hormone therapy (with tamoxifen).

2. Chemotherapy.

3. Radiotherapy.

4. Surgery.

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