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Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Explained
What is viral hepatitis?
Viral hepatitis: This is inflammation and death of the liver caused by a virus or group of viruses.
There are other types of hepatitis, including hepatotoxic and drug-associated hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis.
Types of viral hepatitis
There are many types of viral hepatitis
Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G, etc.
Hepatitis B: It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. DNA hepadnaviruses with partially double-stranded DNA genomes.
Hepatitis C: This is a serious and often asymptomatic liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus, a single-stranded RNA virus. At least six major genotypes have been identified.
Hepatitis B and C viruses are spread through contact with infected blood or blood products
For example, through contaminated needles (including unsterilized tattoo needles), accidental needle sticks by healthcare workers, unprotected sex, sharing nail clippers, razors, or toothbrushes
– Unscreened blood transfusion.
other means of communication
It can also be present in saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids, and is passed from an HbsAg-positive mother to her child (mother-to-child transmission). Hepatitis B is common among homosexuals and intravenous drug users, but most cases are caused by heterosexual transmission. The incubation period for hepatitis B is 6 weeks to 6 months (average 12-14 weeks). The duration of hepatitis C is 6-7 weeks, the clinical symptoms are usually mild and usually asymptomatic.
signs and symptoms
Hepatitis C has been dubbed the “silent killer” because the virus often lies dormant in the body for years, evading detection as it attacks the liver. Since most people don’t have the warning signs of hepatitis C (or don’t know how or when they got it).
They did not seek treatment until many years later. By the time hepatitis C symptoms appear or a diagnosis is made, the damage has usually already begun.
If symptoms do occur, they may be mild or severe. The most common complaints include:
muscle or joint pain
right upper quadrant pain
dark yellow urine
Yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice)
Pale stools that bleed easily and bruise easily.
Yellow Eyes: A Symptom
acute and chronic hepatitis
Acute hepatitis, as the name implies, is sudden and short-lived disease that occurs within the first two weeks to six months after infection.
In up to 25% of cases, the virus clears itself from the body without treatment.
For hepatitis to change from an acute state to a chronic state, persistent infection should occur after six months (usually longer).
An estimated 75% to 85% of patients with acute hepatitis go on to develop chronic infection.
Unless they develop symptoms, people with hepatitis C often do not know they have the virus until it is detected during routine blood testing.
Simple blood tests can tell if a person is infected.
Routine tests include:
Further testing and assays are performed on individuals who test positive above.
Complications of Chronic Hepatitis
Up to a quarter of people with chronic hepatitis C develop cirrhosis or severe liver scarring.
These people may have other symptoms, including swelling in the legs and abdomen, spider-like blood vessels, and a buildup of toxins in the blood that can cause brain damage.
People with chronic hepatitis B, especially when HBV infection is acquired early in life and viral replication persists, are at high risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Chronic hepatitis C is also one of the main causes of liver cancer.
Treatment has improved greatly over the years. Today’s drugs are more effective at clearing viruses from the body and have fewer side effects.
The type of treatment you receive will depend on your genotype or strain of hepatitis and how much damage your liver has had.
Hepatitis B Treatment
The goal of treating chronic hepatitis B is to control the virus and prevent it from damaging the liver. Start by regularly monitoring for signs of liver disease.
Antiviral drugs may help, but not everyone takes them.
Treatment: Chronic Hepatitis C
Some of the newest medicines for hepatitis C genotypes 1, 2 and 3 include: Daclatasvir (Daklinza); Elbasvir/grazoprevir (Zepatier); Ledipasvir (Harvoni); Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with dasabuvir tablets (Viekira Pak); Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (Epclusa); Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); Daclatasvir (Daklinza) and sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); and Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (Epclusa).
Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B vaccination recommended for all newborn babies and adults
Prevention and Control of Hepatitis C
Currently, there is no vaccine against hepatitis C.
Use protective measures to protect yourself and avoid contact with any bodily fluids.
Facts About STDs
Chlamydia: This is a common STD that can cause infertility if left untreated. It clears up quickly with antibiotics. But it’s often overlooked because symptoms are vague or non-existent.
Symptomatic women may notice
– Abnormal leucorrhea;
– Painful urination.
Symptoms in men may include:
discharge from them
urinating; (difficulty urinating)
pain and swelling in one
or both testicles
Can chlamydia be cured?
Yes, chlamydia can be cured with the right treatment. When taken properly, it stops infection and may reduce your chances of complications later on.
Gonorrhea spreads easily and can cause infertility in both men and women.
Antibiotics can stop infection.
– Burning sensation when urinating and passing.
– Later, the infection may cause a rash or spread to the joints and blood.
In men: penile discharge, testicular swelling.
Women: Vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, spotting. Symptoms can be mild and easily confused with urinary tract or vaginal infections.
Most people don’t notice the early symptoms of syphilis. If left untreated, it can cause paralysis, blindness and death.
Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.
Signs and symptoms: The first sign is usually a firm, round, painless sore on the genitals or anus. The disease is spread by direct contact with the sores.
A rash may follow on the soles of the feet, palms, or other parts of the body, along with swollen glands, fever, hair loss, or fatigue. In the late stage, heart, brain, liver, nerves, eyes and other organs are damaged.
Herpes simplex virus type 2
Most cases of genital herpes are caused by a virus called HSV-2. It is highly contagious and can be spread through sexual intercourse or direct contact with herpes sores.
There is no cure. But antiviral drugs can reduce the frequency of outbreaks and help symptoms clear more quickly.
Symptoms: Fluid-filled blisters that form painful, crusted sores on the genitals, anus, thighs, or buttocks. Can spread to lips by oral contact.
The HIV virus weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. HIV is spread through unprotected sex, sharing needles, or being born to an infected mother. It can go years without symptoms, so a blood test is the best way to find out what your condition is.
Prompt treatment is important to help prevent serious illness. Many people don’t have any symptoms, but some experience temporary flu-like symptoms one to two months after infection: swollen glands (see here), fever, headache, and fatigue. Mouth sores may also occur.
HIV Treatment Options
Although there is no cure for HIV, there are medicines that can suppress the number of times the virus can reproduce in the body. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in the hope of preventing the infection from developing into AIDS.
Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite that is spread during sexual contact. It can be cured with prescription medication.
Signs and symptoms in men: Most men have no noticeable symptoms. Some people experience a slight discharge or a slight burning sensation when urinating.
Signs and symptoms in women: Women may experience a yellow-green discharge with a strong odor, vaginal itching, or pain during intercourse or urination. Symptoms usually start 5 to 28 days after infection with the parasite.
Complications of STDs
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea.
It occurs when bacteria spread to infect the uterus and other female reproductive organs. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent damage to a woman’s fertility.
Signs and symptoms: Lower abdominal pain, fever, unusual discharge, dyspareunia, painful urination, and spotting. However, there are usually no warning signs.
Who is at risk for STDs?
Anyone who is sexually active is at risk for STDs, regardless of gender, race, social class, or sexual orientation.
That said, teens and young adults are more likely to contract STDs than older adults.
Do virgins get STDs?
Yes they can. Many STDs are spread through any type of sexual activity, including skin-to-skin contact and oral sex. This is especially true for STDs that produce genital lesions or sores.
The best way to avoid contracting an STD is to avoid any sexual contact.
Do not share sharps and needles.
Avoid using unsterilized items.
Make hyiene a priority.
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