A Recent Report Indicates That 2-Year-Old Children From Well-Educated 12 Aspects of Any Speaker’s Semantic Knowledge You Should Know

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12 Aspects of Any Speaker’s Semantic Knowledge You Should Know

Semantics is the branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of language, which seeks to understand what is an element of language and how it is constructed by language and interpreted, obscured and negotiated by its speakers and listeners. As speakers of a language, we have an implicit knowledge of what is meaningful in our language. In our interpretation of what knowledge is, at least a dozen technical terms are used as aspects of our semantic knowledge: polysemy, homonym, abnormal; Interpretation; synonyms; Semantic features; antonym; contradictions; ambiguities; adjacency pairs; entailments and presuppositions While it is impossible to expect us to be able to clearly define all the words we know or use, it is clear that we can make our thoughts, feelings, and intentions known to other speakers of the language People know and can understand what other people are saying.

This ability requires having a vocabulary, and us as speakers knowing how to pronounce each item in this vocabulary, and how to recognize other speakers’ pronunciations. We know how to use productive vocabulary in meaningful sentences and understand sentences produced by others. Of course, we know meaning—how to choose items that express what we want to say, and how to find meaning in the words of others.

Polysemy

We know that a word is polysemy when it has two or more related meanings. In this case, the word takes one form but can be used to mean two different things. In the case of polysemy, the two meanings must be related in some way, rather than two completely unrelated meanings of the word, For example: bright (shiny) and bright (smart). Mouse (animal) and mouse (computer hardware).

homophonic

Homophones are similar to polysemy in that they refer to a single form of a word that has two meanings, but when the two meanings are completely unrelated, a word is a homonym, for example:

Bats (flying mammals) and bats (sports equipment).

Pens (writing implements) and fountain pens (small cages).

abnormal

In general, we know whether something makes sense in our language, and we can tell which of the following make sense in English.

3a Grace wrote a letter. 3b Henry smiled. 3c Grass smiled.3d wall drawn by harry.

We can see that 3a and 3b make sense to English speakers, while 3c and 3d are anomalies (examples of exceptions), which are generally accepted as correct, while sentence 3c seems to make sense and it Probably in some children’s story or something, and 3d is just a sequence of words.

paraphrase

The following first and second pairs of sentences have basically the same meaning, and when they are not in the following sentences:

4a Agnes arrives before Ruth. 4b Ruth arrives before Agnes.

4c Agnes goes home after Ruth. 4d Ruth came home later than Agnes.

Sentences that make equivalent statements about the same entity, such as 4a and 4c, or 4b and 4d, are paraphrases (of each other).

synonyms

We often agree when two words have essentially the same meaning in a given context. In each of the sentences below, a word is underlined. A sentence is followed by a group of words, one of which can replace the underlined word without changing the meaning of the sentence.

5a Where did you purchase these tools?

Use buy post to modify take

5b At the end of the street, we saw two huge statues,

Pink Smooth Pretty Huge Original

Words that have the same meaning in a given context are synonyms—they are instances of synonyms and are synonyms of each other.

contradictory

We recognize when the meaning of one sentence contradicts another. The following sentences are all about the same person, but the relationship between two of them is such that if one is true, the other must be false.

6a Edgar is married. 6b Edgar was quite rich.

6c Edgar is no longer young. 6d Edgar is a bachelor.

Sentences that make opposite statements about the same subject are contradictory.

antonym

We often agree when two words have opposite meanings in a given context. We can select the word opposite to the underlined word in each sentence from the phrases behind 7a and 7b.

7a Betty cut a thick piece of cake. Train 7b departs at 12:25.

Bright new soft thin wet arriving leaves waiting to turn

We see that two words that are opposite statements about the same subject are antonyms; they are antonyms, instances of antonyms.

semantic features

We know that synonyms and antonyms must have some common meaning elements to be the same or different respectively, but words can have some meaning elements instead of synonyms or antonyms, for example:

8a street lane road path house avenue 8b buy take use steal acquire inherit

The common element of meaning shared by all but one of the words in 8a and all but one of the items in 8b is a semantic feature. We should all agree that in each of the groups of words above, 8a and 8b, all but one have something in common that we know which word doesn’t belong.

Ambiguity

When some sentences have double meanings, there can be two interpretations. We know the fact that there should be two-way interpretation, as follows.

9a Marjorie doesn’t like her parakeets. ((dislike; don’t care)

9b Marjorie takes sick parakeet to a small animal hospital. (small animal hospital; small animal hospital)

One aspect of how meaning works in language is ambiguity. A sentence is ambiguous when it has two or more possible meanings, but how does ambiguity arise in language? Sentences may be ambiguous for any of the following reasons:

Lexical Ambiguity: When a sentence can have two or more possible meanings due to polysemy (words with two or more related meanings) or homonyms (single words with two or more different meanings), it is lexically Ambiguity.

Examples of lexically ambiguous sentences: whore appeals to the pope. The sentence is ambiguous because the word “appeal” is ambiguous and can mean “seek help” or “appeal”.

Structural ambiguity: A sentence is structurally ambiguous if it can have two or more possible meanings because it contains words that can be combined in different ways to produce different meanings.

Examples of structurally ambiguous sentences: Angry cow slashes farmer with axIn this sentence, the ambiguity stems from the fact that “with axe” can refer to both a farmer and an act of injury performed “with an axe” (by an ox).

Adjacent pair

When a question and an answer, or any two utterances, can appear together in a dialogue and the second is clearly related to the first, they form an adjacency pair.

10a When was the last time you wrote an article?

ten minutes ago. last tuesday. very good. around noon. I think it was June 1st.

10b There is a new movie at Studio 21 tonight.

So I’ve heard. what is it called When did it open? Me too, are you sure it’s comedy?

The ability to handle adjacency pairs is considered part of any speaker’s tacit knowledge.

implies

We know that two statements can be related in such a way that if one is true, the other must also be true, as shown in the implication example below.

11a There are apples in the refrigerator.

11b There is fruit in the refrigerator.

11c The ladder is too short to reach the roof.

11d The ladder is not long enough to reach the roof.

We assume that 11a and 11b are about the same garden, and the truth value of 11a implies the truth value of 11b, that is, if 11a is true, then 11b must also be true. Likewise, assuming the same for the ladder and the roof, the truth of 11c must lead to the truth of 11d.

There are two types of implication: mutual implication and asymmetric implication.In mutual implication, each sentence must be true for the other to be true, e.g..: John is married to Rachel’ and ‘Rachel is John’s wife’, ‘Chris is a man’ and ‘Chris is human’, Whereas in asymmetric entailment, only one sentence must be true for the other to be true, but the sentence may be true but not the other, for example: ‘Rachel is John’s wife’ implies ‘John is married’ (But John is married doesn’t mean Rachel is his wife), ‘Rachel has two brothers’ means ‘Rachel is not an only child’ (but Rachel is not an only child doesn’t mean Rachel has two brothers).

premise

We know that the information conveyed by a sentence may presuppose other knowledge. For example, if 12a is accepted as true, then 12b-12e must also be accepted as true.

12a Evan usually drives his Toyota to work.

12b There is a man named Evan.

12c Evan works.

12d has a Toyota that belongs to Evan.

12e Evan can drive.

The meaning of sentence 12a presupposes what is expressed in 12b, c, d and e. The latter is a prerequisite for 12a. Note that presuppositions do not determine the truth of anything. Sentence 12a makes sense by itself, but it is only true if there is a person named Evan who works and owns a Toyota, etc. The sentence is rendered as if there was a person named Evan.

In summary, the above 12 terms were introduced to show our latent knowledge of language, i.e. our general tacit knowledge of language meaning. We can cope successfully, we are very different and circumstances vary greatly depending on how we individually behave in a particular situation or context, it does not necessarily indicate what our deeper abilities are which involve character factors such as willingness Cooperation, memory, attention, recent experiences have a huge impact on our performance.

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