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History of Strength and Conditioning Science
Early records of strength training date back to 3600 BC, when a Chinese emperor ordered his subjects to exercise daily (Webster 1976). In the Zhou Dynasty, subjects had to pass a weightlifting test before joining the army. There is plenty of evidence that weight training was a part of life in ancient Greece and India. In fact, the Greeks built many sculptures of figures lifting heavy stones.
Over the years, many training systems have been proposed. The accumulation of experiences and different philosophies have led us to the current training methods used today. Remember; many authority figures are very different from the original purpose of strength and conditioning. Hard work and dedication form the basis of the early training methods. Today, the opposite is happening in many settings, as simple jobs and quick fixes form the basis of most people’s regimens.
In 16th century Europe, books on weight training began to surface. Sir Thomas Elyot’s book on the subject was published in England in 1531. Joachim Camerius, a lecturer at the University of Leipzig, wrote several books in 1544 advising that weight training should be an important activity offered in model schools. John Paugh published a book in 1728 entitled “A Physiological, Theoretical, and Practical Treatise Concerning the Utility of Muscular Exercise for the Restoration of Strength in the Extremities,” which noted the benefits of weight training for rehabilitation purposes. In the 1860s, Archibald Maclaren designed the first formal dumbbell and barbell physical training system for the British Army.
Nineteenth-century performers and strongman entertainers made significant contributions to the methods used in the fitness and athletic conditioning industry today. Extensively researched iron historian David Webster credits Italian circus and fairground performer Felice Napoli as the man who popularized the Hercules show internationally. Naples’ pupils are Professor Attila (Louis Durrah) and Eugen Sandow (Frederik Müller). Attila became so well known that he attracted some of the world’s best-known sportsmen and many rulers of Europe. His student list included King George of Greece, King Edward of England, Crown Prince Frederick who became King Haakon of Norway, six children of King Christian of Denmark, Queen Mother Alexandra of England, Princess Dagmar (Queen of Russia) and Tsar Nicholas) and the Duchess of Cumberland.
Training the rich was a respected profession at the time. We have what are called personal trainers today. The current protocols used by most trainers today are a far cry from the original teachings and benefits the trainer provides. The trainer’s fame and notoriety at the time was the result of public displays of extraordinary physical feats. These events are often attended by members of the royal family and are widely credited for promoting good health.
Eugen Sandow was born in 1867 in Koningsberg, Eastern Russia, and his teachings have been recruited by presidents and rulers around the world. Nine kings and queens and many princes in Europe, as well as American presidents William Taft and Woodrow Wilson, endorsed Sandow’s book, Life is Movement. Sandow is a successful strongman and promoter of formal fitness and wellness management. He stressed that physical education and sports should be an integral part of the school system. He also traveled the world teaching and promoting physical culture as a means of improving the quality of life.
Sandow is considered by most authorities to be one of the most important figures in the history of fitness, and his work history shows that the modern phenomenon of science-based fitness training is nothing new. Sandow advocates the importance of strength and technique as the cornerstones of fitness. Half a century later, Dr. Kenneth Cooper proposed that health depends primarily on aerobic conditioning. Some 25 years later, the vital role of strength training has once again been recognized by academics.
In Russia at the same time, Vladislav Krayevsky founded the St. Petersburg Amateur Weightlifting Association (1885). Many respected scientists, athletes; artists became his students, including the famous strongman Georg Hackenschmidt, who believed that Krayevsky taught him everything he knew. Hackenschmidt mentions in his book How to Survive that some of the world’s strongest men of his era, Sandow included, trained with Krajewski’s system.
The popularity of Krayevsky’s work and his students had a major impact on Russian weightlifting. Not only was he a renowned teacher, but he himself had a solid track record in barbell lifting. He chaired the jury at the first World Championships in Vienna in 1898.
Krajewski wrote his two foundational works between 1896 and 1899. The titles of these works are Catechism on Rules of Athlete Health and Strength Development with and without Kettlebells. The Catechism on the Rules of Athlete’s Health went to press on December 9, 1899, but was never published and is now preserved in manuscript form. Another of his books was published in 1900 and reprinted 3 times (1902, 1909, 1916) after his death (1901).
Krayevsky has conducted in-depth research on the history of sports culture and gymnastics in its various forms. He knew all about Swedish gymnastics and noticed its therapeutic benefits, but his concerns about the lack of scientific data on Swedish gymnastics prompted him to recruit experimenters to study it.
Many of Krayevsky’s suggestions are still used today. His recommendations include medical control of the athlete’s health, consistent training with varying load patterns, overall physical development, mental development, and avoidance of smoking and alcohol.
Early strength pioneers developed many pieces of equipment in strength training, including cable machines, kettlebells, barbells, dumbbells, odd-shaped bars, thick-grip bars, weight boots, isolators, and various throwing equipment. Yet 50 years later, many people still claim to have invented the machine. In today’s industry, there are many systems and people promoting their new systems that aren’t really new at all.
The development of different scientific and educational cultures divides the West and the East because of subtle differences in their promotion of physical activity. In the years following the world wars, Russia and Europe continued to promote various elements of strength, strength, and skill, while the West primarily promoted aerobic exercise. Kenneth Cooper’s book Aerobics was popular at the time, as was Swedish endurance exercise research. According to Cooper and the Swedish researchers, heart and total body fitness depend primarily on prolonged endurance training. Proponents of endurance theory vehemently protest strength training. Cooper tells the world that strength training promotes a beautiful body but does nothing for health.
At the same time that the aerobics craze was rampant in Western Russia and Eastern Europe, they amassed extensive international information on strength and athletic training while developing comprehensive educational programs to promote their discoveries. Weightlifting was taught in most schools, and within a few decades there were about a million weightlifters in the Soviet Union. Strength training became a key element of all Soviet sports training programs, while the attitude in the West was that weight training would slow athletes down and limit their range of motion. As a result, Russia dominated the Olympics, especially in Olympic weightlifting, while the doctrine of aerobics became a boon in the West.
Russian dominance is often attributed to the use of anabolic androgenic drugs, but the athletic use of these drugs was actually first introduced by the West. Perhaps it is more accurate to say that the strength of Eastern countries lies in their special strength science and understanding of comprehensive sports conditioning. On the topic of drug use, no one uses more drugs than professional bodybuilders, who are primarily Americans.
Fitness and athletic conditioning are still poorly understood by most gyms, trainers, academics and coaches in the West today. The aerobic endurance rush still dominates most of the time, but it’s only a small part of fitness. All people need to do is research the science and overwhelming evidence supporting the numerous health and fitness benefits of a proper strength training program to realize its importance.
Siff, MC (2000) Supertraining. Mersif.
Copyright 2005 Jamie Hale
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