What Is Normal Blood Sugar For Baby 2 Years Old Diabetes Mellitus Tests to Establish the Diagnosis

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Diabetes Mellitus Tests to Establish the Diagnosis

Are you experiencing any of these symptoms of the 4Ps: Polyphagia (excessive hunger), Polydipsia (excessive thirst), Polyuria (frequent urination) or Pruritus (itching)? Or do you easily fall asleep and get tired? Or you have some close relatives, your father or mother, uncle and so on with diabetes? Well, you should be aware of diabetes mellitus. However, to establish a solid diagnosis, you need to see your doctor, who may also send you for a blood test to look at your blood sugar levels…

There are several tests that need to be done to diagnose whether you have diabetes or not. These tests include:

#1 – Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT). This test will measure your blood sugar or glucose. You will be asked to fast for at least 8 hours before your blood sample is taken. This test is usually arranged so you can do the fasting in the evening and have your blood sample taken in the morning. The result will show whether you have diabetes or pre-diabetes.

#2 – Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This test is meant to measure your blood glucose in two stages. The first is similar to the FPGT, which takes your blood sample after a fasting period of at least 8 hours. After your blood draw, you will be asked to drink a type of syrup (sugar diluted in water). The second blood sample will be taken after another 2 hours of your drinking. This test will establish the diagnosis of diabetes or pre-diabetes.

#3 – Random plasma glucose test.Your blood glucose level can also be measured at any time, regardless of when you ate your last meal. This test, along with an evaluation of other symptoms, such as the above 4Ps, is used to establish the diagnosis of diabetes but not pre-diabetes.

Positive results of these three tests must be confirmed by repeating the fasting plasma glucose test as well as the oral glucose tolerance test on another day.

Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test.

This is the test of choice for diagnosing diabetes because it is most convenient and reliable when taken in the morning. Test results can be read as follows:

  • A fasting blood sugar level of 99 milligrams/dL or lower means your glucose level is normal
  • A fasting sugar level of 100 – 125 milligrams/dL, concludes that you are in a stage of pre-diabetes, which is also called impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It means that you are more likely to get type 2 diabetes in the future, but it does not appear yet.
  • A sugar level of 126 milligrams/dL and above means that you have diabetes, which should however be confirmed by repeating the same test on another day.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

Research has concluded that the OGTT appears to be more sensitive compared to the FPGT in diagnosing the stage of pre-diabetes. However, it is less convenient to manage. Test results can be read as follows:

  • A blood sugar level after 2 hours of 139 milligrams/dL or less means your glucose level is normal.
  • A blood sugar level between 140 – 199 milligrams/dL 2 hours after drinking the syrup indicates that you are in a stage of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, which means you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes in the future, but it does not appear yet.
  • A 2-hour blood sugar higher than 200 milligrams/dL means you have diabetes, which should however be confirmed by repeating the same test on another day.

To establish the diagnosis of Gestational diabetes, plasma glucose levels measured during the OGTT can be observed. But in this case, blood sugar levels will be checked 4 times during a test with an interval of one hour between two blood draws. If your blood sugar levels are above normal twice at least during the test, you may be considered to have gestational diabetes.

The following diagram shows the above-normal results for the OGTT for gestational diabetes cases:

  • Fasting – 95 milligrams/dL or more
  • After 1 hour – 180 milligrams/dL or more
  • After 2 hours – 155 milligrams/dL or more
  • After 3 hours – 140 milligrams/dL or more

Note: Some laboratories might use other standards for this test.

Randomized Plasma Glucose Test

A random plasma glucose level of 200 milligrams/dL or more, accompanied by the following symptoms, can be concluded that you have diabetes:

  • Polyuria or frequent urination
  • Polydipsia or excessive thirst
  • Polyphagia or excessive hunger
  • Pruritus or itching
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Or other symptoms such as fatigue, blurred vision and non-healing ulcers.

Based on those findings, your doctor will examine your blood sugar on another day using the FPGT or the OGTT to establish the diagnosis.

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